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Status Reports of the DNA Project
Prepared by Art Sikes, Project Administrator

Updated 22 February 2015

22 February 2015

We continue to do testing of Y-Chromosome Sikes and Sykes DNA.  The number of tests has slowed down but we continue to add to what we know about this DNA.  As of today we have 83 completed DNA tests.  Of these, all except for 12 individuals match other Sikes or Sykes members.  Results are posted on our website for everyone to see using just the test kit number to identify the person taking the test.


We lost one of our early people that really pushed to get Sykes DNA tested, especially in England where it appears that the Sykes name originated.  David Allen Sykes, a retired engineer for IBM who lived in New York until just recently was one of the first people to be DNA tested by Bryan Sykes in his Cambridge England lavatory.  He also wrote a paper on the likelihood that the eight Sykes family groupings (clusters he called them)  that showed up in the 1379 Yorkshire poll tax all survived to the present.  His DNA didn't match the most common Sykes DNA present in England today so it was an uphill battle trying to prove that there was more than one original Sykes family.  You can find his paper on our website under "DNA Project Surname Origins and Analysis".  To see David's early English Sykes line, look under Ancestral Lines on our web site, then "Descendants of Thomas Sykes of Honley, West Riding, Yorkshire, England"


Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) continues to increase the number of tests that they have done and also offering new products along the way.  For our project we still concentrate on the Y-Chromosome testing.  FTDNA continues to have sales at different times of the year, typically offering products (new tests and upgrades) at a 25% discount under the group rates that all of our members get.  If you are interested in a new test for yourself or an upgrade of test that you had previously done, let me know and I can send you an e-mail note when the sale is on and what is on sale.  They have always had a December (Holiday) sale which runs through the month of December when their business slow down because of the Holidays.


21 July 2009
Y-Search Website

Much has happened since Y-DNA testing first became available commercially through Family Tree DNA in February of 2000. Many thousands of people have tested to find family connections as well as family origins. Since then, other labs have entered this market, and the number of tested individuals is growing as the use of DNA is becoming more and more accepted as an important tool for family research, enhancing traditional genealogy research methods.

In order to allow people that have tested with the different companies to make their results available for comparison, Family Tree DNA is offering Ysearch as a free public service.  They have added several tools that allow you to compare side-by-side different users - the YsearchCompare - as well as generate a Genetic Distance™ Report, and many other features, including upload of GEDCOM files.

When looking at the 71 tests that have been ordered as part of the Sykes/Sikes DNA project and have had their results returned, there are only 21 people that have uploaded their Y-Chromosome test results to the YSearch website.  I would recommend that all of our members upload their test results.  Family Tree DNA makes the process very easy as described in the procedure below.  When you put your data up on the website, anyone can see it and people that have been tested with other testing services can compare their data to yours. They can also send you a message using a blind e-mail service that is provided, it’s blind because they are not given your e-mail address.  If you choose to answer them, you can, or if you are not interested, you can just ignore the message.  It’s a good way to find someone that has the same, or very close to your own, Y-Chromosome DNA.  You can remove or edit your test results and other data any time you want.  You have the option to add additional information from your oldest known ancestor to your entire genealogy (ancestors) so others can see it.  They will not post any dates later than 1900 unless you tell them you want them posted.  When you sign up for this free service, they give you a five character code to identify your test results.  It’s a lot like your test kit number; no one can tie it to your name unless you tell them.
Here is the address for the home page of Y-Search:

Procedure for uploading your DNA data from Family Tree DNA:
Please follow these instructions to transfer your Family Tree DNA results to
First log on to
Enter the kit number and password information in the boxes provided at the right of the menu bar located at the top of the screen.

This will take you to your personal page. Once here, select the Y-DNA matches from the left menu. On this screen, right above the section where it lists your matches, you will see a blue lined box that outlines a paragraph of text. The title of this paragraph is "Additional possibilities for searching matches." At the end of the paragraph click on the link titled "Click here to upload to"

This will take you to a page titled "Create New User" This will not however, alter the Family Tree Personal page, kit number, or password in anyway. It will create a new account for only.

If you choose to transfer your information to, again please note, that it is a public website and others will be able to view the information you provide.

On the "Create New User" page you will see the Y-DNA results listed.  Scrolling down you will also see spaces to enter various genealogy information. To create a new account with please make sure you enter a contact email address as well as a password for this account.

Once you have filled in this information, click the "Save Information" button at the bottom of the screen. This will then take you to a page where it will give you your user id and show you the password you entered.

29 January 2008 Recently I added a new column labeled “Data Share Link” to the DNA Test Result Chart beside the kit numbers.  This provides a way to get in direct contact with the owner of a kit to exchange ancestral information with him (or her – some of our test subjects are being monitored by female relatives) directly.  Clicking on the word “share” will open an email to the person whose test results may match, or be close to, your own result.  For example, on my test kit # 69635, clicking on the word “share” opens an e-mail addressed to

If you want to participate in this sharing, I must receive your written request to be included, and have your permission to use your email address.  You might want to sign up for a free email account such as the one at Google to use specifically for this project.  Six men being tested have given permission to share data, so these are already on the chart.  So if you are interested in sharing information with anyone that might see your ancestor data on our web site let me know and also what e-mail address that you would like to use.


The way Family Tree DNA posts the Haplogroup results can be a little confusing.  There are really three levels of their test results: Predictions, Backbone Testing, and Deep SNP Testing.  SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) is DNA that changes so slow that it is used to determine deep ancestor connections.   I have read that a typical SNP will change about every 10,000 years.  So each Haplogroup is classified just by the value of one SNP. 
Haplogroup  R            is defined by SNP M207
                      R1          is defined by SNP M173
                      R1b        is defined by SNP M343
                      R1b1      is defined by SNP P25
                      R1b1c    is defined by SNP M269. 
The Haplogroup R1b1c is a sub group of R, R1, R1b, & R1b1 so it would have all on the other SNP that define that group and sub groups.

Family Tree DNA has done so many tests that they have a large database and they use this for predicting Haplogroups.   If your DNA matches several others and they have been SNP tested, then FTDNA can predict with pretty good confidence what your Haplogroup is.  If on the other hand they don’t have a good match in their database then they do a Backbone Test to determine your Haplogroup.   One of the benefits of being in the Sykes group is that they do this for free.  This is usually just a single test of one SNP by using their closest prediction to pin point  the correct Haplogroup.  Sometimes their data is not totally accurate, so they end up doing two, three and (in one case) four SNP tests to find the Haplogroup. 

The most accurate test is what they call Deep SNP testing.   This can only be done if they have placed you in a Haplogroup by a Prediction or Backbone Testing because they test all of the SNP’s that make up that Haplogroup and its sub groups.

How does this affect the test result chart?  The Haplogroup column is shown in three different colors to represent how FTDNA determined each Haplogroup.  Results in red are Predicted, results in green are Backbone Tested, and the results in blue are Deep SNP tested.  FTDNA has a policy that if you order a Deep SNP test and it’s different than their prediction, then the test is free.

We now have several tests and test upgrades in process, so keep watching our web site for those  results, and use the new “share” links to contact other members of the group.

19 October 2007 Our DNA Project reached a milestone this week with the test results of 50 participants being posted on our chart.

The project has come a long way in the two and a half years it has been running.  All but six of the test results fall into seven specific lineage groups  which are shown in colored highlights on the chart. Ten tests, either new or upgrades are currently being processed. Ten of our test participants have documented their lineage back to England with most of them being in the Yorkshire area. I want to thank David A. Sykes for his work in finding and recruiting these English members of our family. We have several people who are working on their lines and exchanging information with others in their lineage group as shown on the result chart. Sharing of research data and working
together has always been a major goal of our project.

So what have we learned so far? First we have found, in our 50 tests, many of the same groups that Bryan Sykes found in his 2000 test and paper in England using 48 tests. One of the differences is that his was a random sampling where ours is not. We were trying to prove some connections in documented families, so that is why we have six tests reflecting a single family.

Second, we have found a higher mutation rate than predicted, or expected, in one of the lines. The line is the Richard Sikes line and the one that I have spent that last 40 years trying to document. The people being tested in this line are in the 10th & 11th generations from Richard Sikes, and can be as far away as 19-21 transmission events from each other. That's counting down one line and back up another. From the results it appears that Victory Sikes, my direct ancestor, had a mutation on DYS392 from 14 to 15. He has three sons and all three lines have been tested and have the same count in this location. Besides this, there are many other mutations in this line so there are hardly any complete matches in this documented line. Why is this? I'm not sure!

Third, doing a 12 marker test and sometimes a 25 marker test and having a match or close match doesn't necessary mean you are closing in on a common ancestor. An example is test #64888 & #64028 with 25 markers which were off by just one marker, but when the 37 marker results came in on #64028, it is now at five or six markers different. I put these two into a separate group and we are now testing the uppers markers on #64028. What would also help here is to have more of the tests in this group tested to 37 markers.

As always the more you know, there are more questions that can be asked about what you don't know. I think that is one thing this project has done.  It has answered some question but has posed many more. Hopefully, in the future with the continued work from many, we can learn even more about our family.

27 February 2007  The Sikes/Sykes Families Association had a great meeting in Orlando, Florida in early February. One of our main discussion items was the DNA project. We looked at how far we have come since it start in June 2005, where we are today, and where we want to go in the future.  

So first a little update on the project, we now have five 12 marker tests, sixteen 25 marker tests, eleven 37 marker tests, and one 67 marker test completed. We have six other tests that have been ordered and we are waiting for the test kits to be returned or waiting for the lab results to be returned. We still have four major Sikes/Sykes family groups of test results, but we expect to see other groups as new test results come in. 

The Association voted to spend some more money on sponsoring tests and/or subsidizing tests. We still have not found a person with documented connections to the John Sikes line of Norfolk, Virginia through his son Thomas.  This is an important family as far as understanding a large group of similar tested southern Sykes families so we have set aside money for a 25 maker test if we can find someone in this line to be tested. We also have money to help in the cost of further testing of Sikes/Sykes lines that have not been tested yet. So if you know of someone that has 4-5 or 6 generations of Sykes ancestors but is not part of one of the families already tested have them get in touch with me and we will see what we can do to help. 

A big new effort has been started in finding and get tested Sykes family members that have documentation going back to England in the 1840's. We have been collecting a large database of early English Sykes records and want to use them and the DNA results to make the connection between our families and their English origin. Two anonymous Association members have come forward and offered to pay for up to twenty 12 markers DNA test for the people that meet this requirement. We have one test sign up already. So as you correspond with people let them know about our project. The requirements' again are be a male Sikes or Sykes and have documentation that goes back to pre 1852 in England. 

We need to get more genealogical information posted on our web site about the oldest known ancestor on our test result chart, we have links to four families so far but it would be great to have the first three or four generations from all of the oldest know ancestors. This information can be very useful to researchers trying to tie into our existing test data. The families that have links so far are: Richard Sikes, John Sikes of Norfolk, VA, Brothers Samson & Arthur Sikes, and John Sikes of Prince George Co., VA

13 November 2006 We now have four 12 marker tests completed, twenty 25 marker tests and eight 37 marker tests completed. We have several more that are in the process of being upgraded or waiting on additional markers results. We have four major groups of families with the rest being individual examples of family DNA. See attached test result chart. 

Bryan Sykes in his 2000 paper found 13 groups of Sykes families; we have examples in out results of 6 out of the 13 families, that's 46%. His test results of 48 tests was not evenly distributed but concentrated in one major family and with several other smaller families. So it you look at the total number of people that we have match for in out test data its 34 out of 48 or 71%. I think that it is pretty good in that we have a total of 32 tests with results so far. By the time we get to 48 tests that percentage is going to be even higher. 

Bryan's data was a random sampling in counties in England where Sykes' are concentrated today. Ours is far from random, its family that have an interest in family history, maybe there is a gene for that. It's just interesting that we have as many of the families that are present in England today represented in America, some of these families have moved here before 1700. I have added high light colors to connect our test data with Bryan's on the test result chart.

Sikes/Sykes Families Association Meeting

The Sikes/Sykes Families Association is have a Reunion/Meeting in Orlando, Florida this coming February. The reunion is going to be Friday February 2 to Sunday February 4 at the Comfort Inn Universal Studios Area of Orlando. We have secured a group rate for rooms of $89 per night and they have set aside rooms for use of the Association. Reservation can be made for the rooms by calling 407-363-7886 and telling them that you are part of the Sikes Family Reunion. This block of rooms will be held no later than Jan 3, 2007 so don't wait to long. This is a very popular tourist's area so if you want to come early or stay after the meeting the rates are good for 3 day before and after the event. 

Our theme for the meeting will be the "Sikes/Sykes DNA Project and our Southern Sikes/Sykes Families". A separate fee that will include rental of a meeting room for the day on Saturday and a banquet Saturday night, this fee will be $30 per person. Forms for participating in the meeting will be in the next issue of the newsletter "Tributaries", and on our web site or from me. 

This is a great chance to come and meet your fellow Sikes/Sykes family researchers and exchange information. We hold these meeting every 18 months all over the country, the last being in Seattle, Washington in the spring of 2005. You don't have to be an Association member to come to the reunion but we do encourage membership. If you need further information you can contact me or check our web site for updates. 

Hope to see you all in Orlando!

19 September 2006 Trying to find the DNA of John Sikes bc 1615 of Norfolk, Virginia 1636

I would like to analyze one section of the test result chart and try to figure out what the DNA of John Sikes of Norfolk, Virginia, who arrived by 1636, is. We know that John was the earliest known documented Sikes/Sykes family member to America. Through some probate and land records we know a little about the first several generation of this family. Norfolk, VA in very close to the boarder to North Carolina so it appears that the family spread out and the documentation trail got very thin. Of all the testing done so far we have only one person that has documentation back to John. But as expected we have several lines that have been tested that appear to be part of this family. 

The best way to know that you have the earliest ancestor DNA is to test two or more male line from different sons of the original ancestor. If you have good documentation and their DNA matches then you know with some serenity that you have the correct DNA. In our case we have no one from the John, Thomas Sikes line that has been tested that we know of. So let us look at a different method and see what we can come up with. 

All of the people tested with similar DNA to John's are in the blue high lighted group on the main chart. Looking for John's DNA we can eliminate three tests. Two tests # 40491 & 64028 where still in England in 1636. So any common ancestor to this line would have to be in England before John came to Norfolk, VA. Test # 65550 is obvious not a match, that leaves us with 6 tests to look at in detail. Now let us assume that all the remaining test are descendants of John, a big assumption, and that we have a even distribution of people related to both sons Walter & Thomas, another big assumption, we end up with all makers being easy to determine except for marker # 449 where we have a even distribution between two adjoining numbers, 31 & 32. We can also observe that Virginia or North Carolina are the origin of most of these lines. 

Now let us examine these results in detail, test # 55545 & 62155 have a 25 marker match to each other, and a 24 marker match to what we think John's DNA should be, test # 68877 has a 12 marker match (markers 13-25 test results due in a couple of weeks). Test # 66528 has a 23 marker match; marker # 439 (marked more volatile by Family Tree DNA) is off by a count of one. Test # 45339 has a one marker difference # 385a but the count is off by 3 (again more volatile per Family Tree DNA) and the only test that has documentation back to John. And lastly test # 64888, this test has two markers that are different # 390 & # 392 these markers are NOT marked more volatile per Family Tree DNA. 

My conclusion is that there is a pretty good chance that we know John's DNA except for marker # 449, see attached chart. If any of these tests points to an earlier common ancestor than John it is test # 64888. We have one 37 marker test completed in this group and one other in process of being upgraded. Having all the 37 marker test results might help in sorting the members of this family out. The best thing that could happen is to find a documented descendant of the line from John then Thomas. I have money to help pay for a person in the John, Thomas line to be tested, so if you run across anyone from this line Please let me know. I would welcome comments to my conclusions.

13 September 2006 Those of you interested in your DNA may also be interested in a new book by Bryan Sykes. Blood of the Isles is the third in a series of books that continues to explore more about our modern genetic make-up and what it tells us of our tribal past. Bryan and his team of researchers have tested over 10,000 volunteers in the British Isles to study the DNA results. You can read more about this and place a pre publication order at

I have placed an order for the Sikes/Sykes Families Association's library, and will report back to everyone once I get a chance to read it. I'm sure it will be available in major book stores here in the states very soon, if you prefer to look it over before you buy it.

The two previous books were The Seven Daughters of Eve and Adams Curse.  They are still available in book stores or on line. If you have not read them, I highly recommend them to everyone who is interested in what DNA research is doing to enhance and some times re-write history and change genealogical research.

Attached is the latest Sikes/Sykes DNA Project Test Result Chart. Many of you are now choosing the 37 marker test and the data is fascinating.

21 June 2006
The sign up's and results keep coming in on the Sikes/Sykes DNA Project.  Here is a copy of a posting that I did today on several of the Sikes & Sykes bulletin Boards to try to encourage more people to participate in the project.

With 28 tests ordered, and results from 19 returned, a pattern has developed that shows four major Sikes/Sykes family groups. Also, four tests do not have a close match to the others. There are many Sikes/Sykes families in England and the southern part of North America that can trace their families back 4 - 5 - 6 or 7 generations until their documentation trail disappears.  I think that it is important to get as many of these families tested as possible so we can start to try to connect some of these families and put them back together.

From research it appears that there were at least 10 different Sykes families living in Yorkshire, England, the origin of the Sykes family name, in 1379 when surnames were first passed from father to son in the general population.  Before this date surnames were typically not passed down, or not used at all.  So if all of these families survived, which is very unlikely, then at some point we would expect to see perhaps ten groupings of Sikes/Sykes families.

Come visit our web site and join our DNA project so all can share in our Sikes/Sykes heritage.


31 May 2006 As of today we have 20 completed test results. We also have three new tests in process and two upgrade tests in process. As you can see by viewing the attached Test Result Chart most of these test results fall into four groups. Two of these groups include our two oldest known Sykes emigrant families but also include newer Sikes emigrants. With more test results we could identify additional Sikes/Sykes family groups. If you have been thinking about getting a test done now might be the time to consider putting one on order, especially if you don't tie into one of the established families with the documentation that you have found.

The other thing that I have done is to add a column to the chart, just before the first marker #939. What this column is for is reporting Haplogroups. Per Family Tree DNA, the initial haplogroups assignments are made on the basis of probability. Most of the time tests are "suggested" results and require a haplogroup test to know for certain. There are three haplogroups shown (R1a, R1b1, & I) and five where no results were returned.

Family Tree DNA provides the following thumbnail of the different haplogroups: R1a - the R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse. These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

R1b - Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype.

I - The I, I1, I1a lineage are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extended down into central Europe.

Hopefully we will know more about these groups later as Dave Sykes has been doing some testing comparing the Sykes results with several other posted results. I have also added one non-Sykes to the test result chart, Thomas Gledhill. The ancestral home is the same as many Sykes families and there are just 4 markers, of 25 markers, that are different from the one family closest on the charts. Oxford Ancestors reports that this Gledhill line is probably of Celtic origin.

The last thing that you may have or may not have noticed is that on our web site we have four of the earliest known Ancestors linked to family histories elsewhere on our web site. I would like to add additional families plus add details to the families already on our site. In the latest issue of "New England Ancestors" by the New England Historic Genealogy Society, in an article titled "Interpreting Mutations in Y-DNA Studies" by Anita Lustenberger, a chart tries to put some limit on the number of mutations that make sense to continue doing standard genealogical research. "So how many mutations or mismatches are needed to exclude a relationship? For a 12 marker test 2 mismatched is borderline, 3 mismatches exclude genealogical relationships, for a 25 marker test 3 borderline, 4 exclude, and for a 37 marker test 4 or 5 are borderline, 6 exclude."

17 February 2006 The test results are now coming back a little ahead of schedule so as of today we have eighteen tests started. Of these we are waiting for results from just three. Of the eighteen tests there is two 12 marker test, twelve 25 marker tests, three 37 marker tests, and one mtDNA test. I have been given test result from two people that had tests done previously and were willing to share their results. And we also have the forty eight 4 markers tests from Bryan Sykes' English Sykes paper. I have not posted the full 37 marker test results because with just three in different families there is not a lot to compare them to.

It appears that we have 3 and maybe 4 different southern Sikes/Sykes families and I'm sure there will be more to come. I also know of two early Sikes families one in Maryland and one in Pennsylvania in the early 1800's, we should try to add these families to the list of tested Sikes families. I'm really happy about what we have done so far but there is still much to be done.

I think that we should try to find some additional family members in the John Sikes of Norfolk, VA family. This was the earliest Sikes family here in America. He had at least two sons Walter and Thomas; we have no test done on the Thomas side of the family, that we know of. If someone could find a male in this line with documentation to Thomas son of John I have some money from the Association to help in that testing. So if you know of anyone please let me know. I would also like to get other families members of the Samson Sikes line of Tennessee tested, test #45600 is the only test that doesn't match that family group and only by doing more testing can we resolve this problem.

I want to thank everyone for his or her support and encourage everyone to get additional test done on your family or other Sikes/Sykes families in your area. I know that there are many southern families that have no documentation to their emigrant ancestor. This is a chance to help in that search. Remember if two or three cousins work together and share the test cost it will be possible to get additional tests going. With this additional information we will be able to understand our Sikes/Sykes family history better.

Did everyone get a chance to read the paper that David Sykes researched and wrote Single or Multiple "Original" Sikes/Sykes Founders on the early Sykes families in England? If not let me know and I can get a copy of our latest Newsletter sent to you.

07 December 2005 The good news is the test results are now coming back ahead of schedule so as of today we have fourteen tests going. Of these we are waiting for results from just two. Of the fourteen tests there is one 12 marker test, ten 25 marker tests, and three 37 marker tests. We also have been given test result from two people that had tests done previously and were willing to share their results. And we also have the 4 markers tests from Bryan Sykes' English Sykes paper. I have not posted the full 37 marker test results because with just three in different families there is not a lot to compare them to.

More good news. We now have two tests completed on sons of John Sykes of VA born 1750 and the DNA is a match. This family thinks that they tie back to a Bernard Sykes of VA, but no documentation has been found so far making that connection. A new test was just ordered from a Bernard Sikes family member to see if this is a match to the John Sykes line to show a connection between these two families.

We had a family from Georgia, William H. Sykes b. 1818 that had hit a stone wall in their documentation. When the test results came in there was a 24 marker match out of 25 to Arthur Sikes line of Tennessee. So these two families have a common ancestor back there some place. Which is good for both of these lines as they try to work back another generation. This is one of the main reasons for doing these tests.

Now for the other news. We have two test results that just came in that did not match the family that we expected for John of VA bc. 1615. Test #42993 & #45600 indicate different families. They both have a match in Bryan's 4 marker results, so they are both Sykes families, just not necessarily descended from John of VA. The test results from a John Thomas line could do a lot to resolve the true DNA for this line.

The next tests are that of brothers Samson & Arthur Sikes of Tennessee, #45600 & #42993. These are also different families. More testing is needed here to resolve this family.

Lets talk about some of the reasons that these miss matches may have occurred. There are three common possible reasons for a miss match in the DNA and a fourth that is not common. * The first is a genealogy documentation error. Somewhere down the line from Samson to test #45600, or on the line Arthur to test #42993, there was an error made which put someone into the wrong family. Just one assumption can throw off the entire line.

* The second reason is an adoption into the family, for example if one of the wife's had a sister that died young this family could have adopted that person's child and he would have been then part of that new family and the adoption would have been forgotten. This adoption might not have ever made it to the court records if the baby was real young.

* The third reason is one of the wives in a line was unfaithful. Though not a nice thought, it's a possibility.

* The last possible reason is the testing company got the test samples mixed up. This is probably the least likely due to the procedures they have in place to prevent this kind of mix up.

21 November 2005 We have some additional data from tests and additional tests in process. We now have thirteen DNA test in process or already completed, one 12 marker, ten 25 marker and two 37 marker tests. Of these we have two 12 marker test results, five 25 marker test results and one 37 marker test results back and posted.

We have three test results from the Richard Sikes family of Massachusetts, there are still several markers that we don't know for sure, we will probably need one more test in the Richard, Increase, Increase or Richard, Increase, Samuel line to resolve this for sure. The second Richard, Victory test [first 12 markers] has one difference and that's marker 439, this is probably unique to the Richard, Victory, Victory line for it is a marker with a higher mutation rate.

We have test results from three southern Sykes families; First John Sikes of Virginia has a match to Bryan's Sykes data for the second most populous Sykes in England, so I think that is Sykes DNA for sure. But we have only one test result with another one more in process though this one has a common first three generations. The result from the John, Thomas line should pin down the DNA from this line, I have been looking for but unable to find someone from this line that is willing to be tested.

The second Sykes line is that of brothers Samson & Arthur Sikes of Tennessee. We have one 12 marker and one 25 marker test results back, they are a complete match; these two cousins are close so that was to be expected. In this case the first four markers don't match any of the data from Bryan Sykes data, but it is only off by one marker. Again with only one of the two brother's test completed we don't know for sure if the results are correct. We have one more tests in process for this family that should add a lot to what we know, this test result is due in mid December.

Another southern Sykes Family test we have running is that of John Sykes family, he is believed to be part of a Bernard Sykes family who was in Virginia by 1680 and probably earlier. The first test results show no match to Bryan Sykes data or any of the other families so far tested. We have two more tests running on this family one on John, John line which should firm up the DNA for this line, test results due in mid December.

The last southern family with test running is William Sikes of Georgia. There is a single test running with results due in late December. There are many Sikes/Sykes families in the southern states that have not been able to trace their families back to an immigrant. With what looks like three distinct DNA profiles we should now be able to start to put some of these families together. I hope to send out a series of letters and e-mails after the holiday's to encourage additional testing of some of these dis-connected southern Sykes families.

Lastly we have two tests of more resent Sykes families to America, John Sykes of Yorkshire England and Thomas Sykes of Yorkshire England. Both families immigrated in the mid 1800's to America. The first test of John does match one of the results in Bryan Sykes' data and the second test has just one marker difference from Bryan's data. We have the Sikes/Sykes families living all over the world, but mostly from countries that were part of the British Empire. It would be helpful and interesting to get data from some of these distance cousins.

21 October 2005 We have some additional data from tests and additional tests in process. We now have ten DNA test in process or already completed. Of these we have the 25 marker test results back on three of them, and 12 marker results on one.

We have two test results from the Richard Sikes family of Massachusetts, there are still several markers that we done know for sure but we have an additional test in process that may resolve these markers but we will probably need one more test in the Richard, Increase, Increase or Richard, Increase, Samuel line to resolve this for sure.

We have two test results from two southern Sikes families; First John Sikes of Virginia has a match to Bryan's Sykes data for the second most populous Sykes in England, so I think that is Sykes DNA for sure. But we have only one test result with another one in process though this second one has a common first three generations. What we really need here is someone from the John, Thomas line to get tested.

The second Sykes line is that of brothers Samson & Arthur. We have the 12 marker test results with the remainder of the 25 markers due in a couple of weeks. In this case the first four markers don't match any of the data from Bryan Sykes data, but it is only off by one marker. Again with only one test completed we don't know for sure if the results are correct. We have two more tests in process for this family that should add a lot to what we know. One disappointing thing is that it doesn't look like John Sikes of Virginia is the ancestor of this line.

The last southern test we have running is that of Bernard Sykes, he was in Virginia by 1680 and probably earlier. I don't have a test number on this test because it is being run privately but I have been promised a copy of the test results and a complete list of ancestors. It will be interesting to see if this family test results matches brothers Samson & Arthur. Right now I have only one test in this line and would like to get a second test going.

I think that we have made great progress in the short time this project has been running and look forward to more tests being run and more results being returned.

26 September 2005 Since Bryan Sykes, Professor of Human Genetics at the Oxford University, published his landmark paper, Surnames and the Y-Chromosome in 2000 the question is how are the Sikes/Sykes emigrants that came to America in the 1600's related to these English Sykes's. There are at least two documented early Sykes families in America in the 1600's, John Sikes of Virginia, arrived about 1636, and Richard Sikes of Massachusetts, arrived about 1639. The other obvious question is how are these two early Sikes emigrants related to each other if at all?

The first two tests are in on the Richard Sikes line through his son's Victory and Increase. Both of these lines match the four markers tested done by Bryan Sykes (markers 393, 390, 19, & 391) that represent about half of the Sykes's in England from his report. These lines also match each other in 11 out of the first 12 markers; marker 392 is different by one. On markers 13-25 there is three additional markers that are different, 464b, 464c, & 464d. Family Tree's calculation of "Genetic Distance" gives a distance of 3 between these two lines. This calculation is very complex and takes several pages to explain and at this point I'm not sure that I understand all it complexities, so for now I will take their calculation on faith.

There are three tests that are in process for southern Sykes families, with these results we will know how close these family are related if at all.  The plan is to find two more southern families; John Sikes through his son Thomas and Samson Sikes then we will have two lines from each of these families.

Visit the Sikes/Sykes Families Association web site for links to several Sykes related papers on Sykes DNA studies and the latest test results.

14 September 2005 As part of the agreement of setting up a Surname Project at FamilyTreeDNA they allow you to set up a web site for information about your DNA testing. I had already asked Diane about this and she advised that to maintain a web site could be very time consuming and we have already information on our Sikes/Sykes Association web site. It turns out that the web site that they provide is very limited in that you can add text to 4 areas (Project Background, Project Goals, Project Results, & Project News) and selection several other features to show up on the web page. One thing that they have is a method to set up a fund for collecting money to fund tests. They allow Credit Cards, PayPal or mail in payments and then the group administrator get to use the money for testing additional Sikes/Sykes members. 

We had talked about setting up a fund and having Brian collect the money and basically do the same thing, this is more work for Brian and he can't take Credit Cards and PayPal payments. I think by using what they have set up, we might get a wider participation and also make it easier for anyone that wants to contribute. This also give us two more links to our Association web site. 

Look over what I proposed that we put on the web site and give me your feedback on how you like this idea.  

Family Tree DNA Sykes web site page 

Title: Sikes-Sykes DNA Project 

Project background: 

Ever since Bryan Sykes, Professor of Human Genetics at the Oxford University, published his land mark paper, 'Surnames and the Y-Chromosome" in 2000 the question of how the Sikes/Sykes emigrants that came to America in the 1600's are related to these English Sykes's. There are at least two documented early Sykes families in America in the 1600's, John Sikes of Virginia, arrived about 1636, Richard Sikes of Massachusetts, arrived about 1639. The other obvious question is how are these two early Sikes emigrants related to each other if at all? 

Visit the Sikes/Sykes Families Association web site for links to several Sykes related papers on Sykes DNA studies.

Project Goals: 

The goal of this project is to help Sikes and Sykes family researchers locate common ancestors. This will be accomplished by providing Y-Chromosome DNA evidence of individual family lines to compare with other families who also have a common Sykes ancestor. 

Project Results: 

As of today there is one 12 marker test results that has been completed by FamilyTreeDNA, the DNA results matched the most populous group tested by Bryan Sykes. See test results:

Project News: 

As of September 2005 there are five 25 marker DNA tests have been started and one 37 marker test. The first of the test result are due during September and October 2005. 

A general fund has been set up that allows people interested in helping with this project to contribute money to help with the testing. This fund administrated by FamilyTreeDNA and the group administrator allows Credit Card, PayPal or mail contributions. 

When there is enough money in the fund to sponsor one test (25 marker Y-Chromosome) $171, the group administrator will set up and arrange for a test. The criteria for selecting test subjects is to find the valid DNA for a family by testing two members that are descendants of a oldest know ancestor and having their DNA match, these two test have to be cousins with a common ancestor as close to the earliest ancestor a possible. The size of the family prioritizes the families being selected for testing, the more members the family has the higher on the list. Click link for "Contributing to the general fund." If you would like to help with the Sykes-Sikes testing.

22 July 2005 We have three DNA test in progress. Two from the Richard Sikes line, the first a Richard b. c1600, Increase, Nathaniel, Joseph line the second a Richard, Victory, Jonathan, Jonathan line. The third test is John b. 1812 England, David b. 1858 MA, and Arthur b. 1888 CT, one of our members is sponsoring his own test on this line.

I have talked to Dennis Maguire about lining up two people from the John Sikes line of Norfolk, VA. A John b. c1600, Walter line and a John, Thomas line. I have not heard from him as of yet but hope to soon.

I will be calling the editor of the Grand Sikes/Sykes Newsletter and see if they can help line up two people from brother's Arthur & Samson Sikes of Steward County, TN. I had hoped to have Henry Sykes help with these tests but his death last week make that route not possible. I know that Henry would have wanted this project to go forward, he had spent a lot of time trying to place Arthur & Samson into a Sikes family in North Carolina.  There is a good possibility that this line may tie back to the John Sikes
like of Norfolk, VA.

When these test are all in progress I think it is time to let others know about our project. Using the Sikes & Sykes queries boards on Rootsweb & GenFourm I hope to encourage others to join our project. The more data that we collect the better we will understand how the Sikes/Sykes families interconnect and how and when they migrated to different locations.
24 June 2005
It looks like we now have a Sikes/Sykes Family DNA Project. So we need to start thinking about a web page for the project and the results, on our web site.

I just got an e-mail with the access code to the administrators page for the Sykes Project on FamilyTreeDNA.  The page allows me to add a new member by placing an order for them, review results, check on test kit status, family project web site setup, and more.

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